What Is A Patent Fingerprint? Learn About Patent Fingerprints

What Is A Patent Fingerprint?

Fingerprints are one of the most reliable and unique ways to identify people.

They are formed by the friction ridges on the tips of our fingers, which create distinctive patterns that can be compared with other sets of prints.

Fingerprints can be found on any solid surface, including our own body.

In this article, We will explain the different types of fingerprints, how they are formed, how they are collected and analyzed, and why they are important for solving crimes.

What Is A Patent Fingerprint?Courtesy:Alphr
What Is A Patent Fingerprint?
Courtesy:Alphr

What Are Fingerprint Types?

Fingerprints can be classified into three main categories: latent fingerprints, plastic fingerprints, and patent fingerprints.

Latent Fingerprints

Latent fingerprints are not visible to the naked eye.

They are left on a surface as a result of natural oils on the skin that make it difficult to create a contrast between the skin surface and the imprint itself.

They can only be made visible with special forensic techniques, such as applying powders or using chemical reagents or alternative light sources.

Latent fingerprints are often found at crime scenes or on objects that have been touched by someone who has left their fingerprint.

They can provide valuable information about the identity of the person who left them or their involvement in a crime.

Plastic Fingerprints

Plastic fingerprints are detailed impressions of a person’s finger left in a pliable substance, such as clay, wax or wet paint.

The impression is readily visible and can be photographed as you would a patent fingerprint.

Plastic fingerprints are often used for artistic purposes or for creating models or replicas of objects or people.

They can also be used for training purposes or for testing different materials or techniques.

Patent Fingerprints

Patent fingerprints are visible images of a person’s fingertip left on a surface as a result of residue on the finger.

They can be created by blood on someone’s finger, another liquid such as oil or ink, or by dirt.

Patent fingerprints are among the easiest to identify for forensic examiners because they do not require any special techniques to make them visible.

They can also provide useful information about the person who left them or their connection to an object or location.

How Are Fingerprint Patterns Formed?

Fingerprint patterns consist of three main features: whorls, loops and arches.

Whorls

Whorls are circular patterns that consist of one central ridge surrounded by smaller ridges radiating from it like spokes on a wheel.

They can be further divided into subtypes based on their shape and size.

Whorls account for about 40% of all fingerprint patterns and tend to occur more frequently in males than females. Whorls may indicate creativity, intelligence or artistic ability.

Loops

Loops are curved patterns that consist of two main ridges connected by smaller ridges forming loops around them like rings on a tree trunk.

They account for about 25% of all fingerprint patterns and tend to occur more frequently in females than males.

They may indicate emotional stability, sociability or leadership skills.

Arches

Arches are straight patterns that consist of two main ridges separated by small valleys forming arches over them like bridges over rivers.

They account for about 35% of all fingerprint patterns and tend to occur more frequently in both males and females equally.

They may indicate honesty, reliability or practicality.

How Are Fingerprint Prints Collected And Analyzed?

Fingerprint prints can be collected from various sources using different methods depending on their type and location.

For latent prints found at crime scenes or on objects that have been touched by someone who has left their fingerprint:

  • The first step is to secure the scene from contamination by dusting it with powder containing microscopic particles that adhere to oily residues.
  • The second step is to lift the latent print from its original surface using adhesive tape coated with powder.
  • The third step is to transfer the lifted print onto another surface such as paper using ink containing microscopic particles that adhere to oily residues.
  • The fourth step is to photograph the transferred print using magnifying glass or microscope.
  • The fifth step is to compare the transferred print with reference prints from databases such as FBI’s National Integrated Biometric System (NIBS) which contains more than 100 million records from over 200 countries.
  • The sixth step is to identify any matches between the transferred print and reference prints based on statistical analysis such as point-counting methods which assign points based on certain criteria such as size

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